Metal Casting is one of the oldest materials shaping methods known.Casting means pouring molten metal into a mold with a cavity of the shape to be made, and allowing it to solidify.When solidified, the desired metal object is taken out from the mold either by breaking the mold or taking the mold apart.The solidified object is called the casting.By this process, intricate parts can be given strength and rigidity frequently not obtainable by any other manufacturing process.
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Forging is a process in which material is shaped by the application of localized compressive forces exerted manually or with power hammers, presses or special forging machines.The process may be carried out on materials in either hot or cold state.The term forging usually implies hot forging carried out at temperatures which are above the recrystallization temperature of the material.Forging is an effective method of producing many useful shapes.Typical forged parts include rivets, bolts, crane hooks, connecting rods, gears, turbine shafts, hand tools, railroads, and a variety of structural components used to manufacture machinery.The forged parts have good strength and toughness; hence they can be used reliably for highly stressed and critical applications.Forgeability is the ease with which a given metal can be forged into the required shape.For forging the metal must be heated to a temperature at which it will possess high plastic properties both at the beginning and end of the process.Excess temperature may result in the formation of oxides also the insufficient temperature will not introduce sufficient plasticity in the metal to shape.So Temperature at which forging is finished has an important influence on the properties of forging.
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